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Generation of Computers

Generation of Computers :

First Generation of Computer (1945-55) :
     The first generation computer were very big in size. It used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, often enormous and taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a huge amount of electricity and generated high tempurature of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. And they were slow and not suitable for longer time process. e.g. ENIAC = Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator


Second Generation of Computer (1955-65) :
      The second generation of computer comes with the repalcement of vaccum tubes and valves with transistors. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. So the computer becomes compact and reliable for longer time process.

Third Generation of Computer (1965-75) :
     The third generation of computer is evolutionary to the computers.Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. In third generation Integrated Circuit technology were developed. Particularly SSI and MSI technology. IC means more one circuit packed in a single chip.

SSI [Small Scale Integration] : Here maximum 10 circuits can be packed in a same chip .
MSI [Medium Scale Integration] : Here 10 to 100 circuits are packed in same chip.

Fourth Generation of Computer (1975-95) :
      The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. In this generation LSI and VLSI technology were developed.
LSI [Large Scale Integration] : It consist of 100-1000 circuits in a single chip.
VLSI [Very Large Scale Integration] : Here more than 1000 circuits are packed in a single chip.Super computer is developed in this generation. It uses VLSI technology.

Fifth Generation of Computer (Beyond and Present) :
     Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence. The goal of fifth generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language (general language which people used to read and write) as input and devices are capable of handling things like human being. Artificial intelligence is still in development stage. Though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, which being used today for many purpose.

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