What is Integrated Circuits ? IC

An integrated circuit (IC) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is usually made of silicon. It normally looks like a small wafer. It can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors. It can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory. IC can perform calculations and store data using either digital technology or analog technology.

Integration of large numbers of transistors into a small chip results in circuits and construct a chip, which are smaller in size, faster in speed and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit’s mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized Integrated circuit’s in place of designs using discrete transistors. Integrated circuit’s are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of integrated circuits.

Digital integrated circuits use logic gates, which work only with values of ones and zeros. A low signal sent to to a component on a digital IC will result in a value of 0, while a high signal creates a value of 1. Digital ICs are the kind you will usually find in computers, networking equipment, and most consumer electronics.

Analog integrated circuits or linear integrated circuits work with continuous values. This means a component on a linear IC can take a value of any kind and output another value. The term "linear" is used since the output value is a linear function of the input. For example, a component on a linear IC may multiple an incoming value by a factor of 2.5 and output the result. Linear ICs are typically used in audio and radio frequency amplification.

Electronic Circuits

Electronic circuits can be grouped under different categories depending upon their operation, connection, structure, etc. Let’s discuss more about the types of Electronic Circuits.

Active Circuit
A circuit that is build using Active components is called as Active Circuit.

It usually contains a power source from which the circuit extracts more power and delivers it to the load.

Additional Power is added to the output and hence output power is always greater than the input power applied.

The power gain will always be greater than unity.

Passive Circuit
A circuit that is build using Passive components is called as Passive Circuit.

Even if it contains a power source, the circuit does not extract any power.

Additional Power is not added to the output and hence output power is always less than the input power applied.

The power gain will always be less than unity.

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