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Indicators of health

Indicators of health

Health is measured by following indicators as given below:
1. Mortality indicators:
a) crude death rate: it is defined as number of deaths per 1000 population per year in a given population
b) age specific death rate: it is defined as total number of deaths occuring in specific age group of the population in a defined area during specific period per 1000 estimated population of the same age group of the population in same area during the same period.
c) infant mortality rate: it is the ratio of deaths under 1 year of age in a given year to total number of live births in the same year , usually expressed as a rate per 1000 live births.
d)child mortality rate: number of deaths at ages 1-4 years in a given years per 1000 children in that age group at midpoint of the year concerned. It excludes infant mortality.
e) Maternal mortality rate:It is defined as total number of female deaths due to complications of pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of delivery from "puerperal sepsis" in an area during a given year per 1,00,000 live births in the same area and year .
f) case fatality rate: it is defined as the number of death from a specific disease during a specific time period divided by number of cases during the same time period usually expressed as per 100.
2. Morbidity indicators: the following morbidity rates are used to estimate the burden of disease in a given population: 
a) incidence and prevalence rate
b) notification rates
c) admission, re- admission rates and discharge rates.
d) out- patient department (OPD ) attendance
3, disability indicators:
a) event type indicators: number of days of restricted activity, disability rates , work loss in a given period.
b) person type indicators: 
i) limitation of mobility: confined to bed or confined to house, special aid in getting around inside or outside the house.
ii) limitation of activity: limitation to perform basic activity of daily living ( ADL)
Like eating, dressing,washing, washing etc. Or limitation to perform major activity like ability to work in job etc.

Disability adjusted life years (DALY): it is expressed as years lost due to ill health, disability or early dealth. It combines years of life lost (YLL) which is calculated as number of deaths at each age multiplied by the expected remaining years of life according to global standard life expectancy and years lost to disability (YLD) where the number of incident cases due to injury or illness  is multiplied by the average duration of the disease and a weighting factor reflecting the severity of disease on a scale of 0 to 1.

4. Nutritional status indicators:
a) anthropometric measurements of school children like height, weight, mid arm circumference, head circumference, chest circumference.
b) prevalence of low birth weight ( weight at birth less than 2.5 kg)
c) other indicators include: weight for age,weight for height, height for age,
5. Fertility indicators:
a) birth rate : it is defined as number of live births per 1000 estimated mid year population in a given year.
b) general fertility rate : it is defined as number of live births per 1000 women in the reproductive age group (15-44 or 49 years) in a given year in a given area.
c)genera marital fertility rate : it is defined as number of live births in a year to 1000 marriedwomen in age group (15-44 or 49 years) in a given year in a given area.
d) age specific fertility rate: it is defined as number of live births in a year to 1000 women in any specific age group.
e) age specific marital fertility rate: it is defined as number of live births in a year to 1000 married woman in any specific age group.
f) total fertility rate: it represents the average number of children a women would have if she were to pass through her reproductive years bearing children at the same rates as the women now in each age group.
TFR = 5× sum total of age specific fertility rate ( from 15-19 to 45- 49 years ) per 1000.
g) total marital fertility rate: average number of children that would be born toba married women if she experiences current fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span
TMFR= 5× sum total of age specific marital fertility rate ( from 15-19 to 45- 49 years ) per 1000.
h) gross reproduction rate: average number of girls that would be born to a women if she experiences current fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span (15-44 or 49 years), assuming no mortality.
GFR =5× sum total of age specific fertility rate ( from 15-19 to 45- 49 years ) for female live births per 1000.
I) net reproduction rate: it is defined as the number of daughters a newborn girl will bear during her lifetime assuming fixed cage specific fertility and mortality rates. NRR of 1 is equivalent to attaining 2 child Norm.
j) other indicators: child women ratio, pregnancy rate, abortion rate, abortion ratio, marriage rate.

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